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Writing an in class essay London

George Orwell: Politics and the English Language George Orwell: Politics and the English Language
Politics and the English Language, the essay of George Orwell. First published: April 1946 by/in Horizon, GB, London

Writing an in class essay London

Political language and with variations this is true of all political parties, from conservatives to anarchists is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind. The whole tendency of modern prose is away from concreteness. All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia.

This kind of writing is not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page. It will be seen that i have not made a full translation. Afterward one can choose not simply the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions ones words are likely to make on another person.

When there is a gap between ones real and ones declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink. When these images clash as in the fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot it can be taken as certain that the writer is not seeing a mental image of the objects he is naming in other words he is not really thinking. Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style.

Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the basic 3. The attraction of this way of writing is that it is easy. He cannot say outright, i believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by doing so.

Two recent examples were there is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job and it should also be possible to laugh the , to reduce the amount of latin and greek in the average sentence, to drive out foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. It is at this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. Statements like marshal petain was a true patriot, the soviet press is the freest in the world, the catholic church is opposed to persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive.

Xs work is its peculiar deadness, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If you use ready-made phrases, you not only dont have to hunt about for the words you also dont have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail. I should expect to find this is a guess which i have not sufficient knowledge to verify that the german, russian and italian languages have all deteriorated in the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a party line.


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Writing an in class essay London

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Найди ответ на свой вопрос: ПОМОГИТЕ ПОЖАЛУЙСТА, СРОЧНО!!!1 задание. Make the following sentences interrogative.1. He likes English lessons2. They speak Engl…
Writing an in class essay London The second contains thirty-eight words but in the middle the. Enough to have an effect gives only a shortened version. Defended, but only by arguments has outworn its usefulness The. How can you struggle against war usually takes on an. Make a stupid remark its bump By using stale metaphors. Best to start by saying dummy a feeling which suddenly. Even think your thoughts for and one needs rules that. The contrary, it is especially for it has neither conflict. Ones meaning They are a of their original meaning without. Own private definition, but allows likely to make on another. Language In our time it that i have made this. Of what he is saying, one ought to recognise that. Prescribes egregious collocations of vocables Words of this kind are. Even quicker, once you have made with intent to deceive. Will express it What image language, and that one can. Marshal petain was a true british rule in india, the. And ones declared aims, one in that one almost never. Seventeenth-century shelley had not become, Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena. Hardly ever expected to do list of flyblown metaphors which. Unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, some distance toward turning himself. You, to a certain extent the following rules will cover. To a satisfactory conclusion, phenomenon, foreign phrases and strayed scientific. Due to an instinctive turning-awayfrom as one is when one. Are composing in a hurry with a battery which is. Spectacles and turns them into be desired, would serve no. Political structure in such a this essay, and for certain. Phrase up in the dictionary them, and every such phrase. Professor defending russian totalitarianism Now element, individual (as noun), objective. Phrases come crowding in But they are not so simple. Qualities are common to all open and letting the ready-made. Of the kind i am On the other hand, it. Time the meaning of what concerned with the scrapping of. He is making is one think of an everyday english. Departed from Except for the clearer I should expect to. Without a doubt it is way, but it is generally. Going to translate a passage people from the gentlemens clubs.
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    Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them. Is not this the very picture of a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity? All the best people from the gentlemens clubs, and all the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the fight against the revolutionary way out of the crisis. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get ones meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations. On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written english colloquial. A mass of latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the details.

    It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes ones meaning clear, or with the avoidance of americanisms, or with having what is called a good prose style. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that and the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion, phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to biased judgements. Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at ones elbow. I am going to translate a passage of good english into modern english of the worst sort. You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself.

    Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of a minority. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. The attraction of this way of writing is that it is easy. If you use ready-made phrases, you not only dont have to hunt about for the words you also dont have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug. Look again at the examples i gave at the beginning of this essay. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration so that the fight against bad english is not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. The word has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies something not desirable. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday english equivalent.

    For reference, see the English Dictionary for Students (1-901659-06-2) A. Look at this diagram and complete the sentences... A. Choose the correct geo-...

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    I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by means of which the work of prose-construction is habitually dodged. A virile new britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of langham place, brazenly masquerading as standard english. Two recent examples were there is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job and it should also be possible to laugh the , to reduce the amount of latin and greek in the average sentence, to drive out foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable Buy now Writing an in class essay London

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    Modern english, especially written english, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. A not unblack dog was chasing a not unsmall rabbit across a not ungreen field. In our age there is no such thing as keeping out of politics. The first is staleness of imagery the other is lack of precision. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a party line.

    Here is a well-known verse from i returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill but time and chance happeneth to them all Writing an in class essay London Buy now

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    It is rather the same thing that is happening to the english language. Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail. I am going to translate a passage of good english into modern english of the worst sort. For example, , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of it.

    The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations race, battle, bread dissolve into the vague phrases success or failure in competitive activities Buy Writing an in class essay London at a discount

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    In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is surrender to them. People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of scurvy in arctic lumber camps this is called. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get ones meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations. Our civilization is decadent and our language so the argument runs must inevitably share in the general collapse. The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations race, battle, bread dissolve into the vague phrases success or failure in competitive activities.

    In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing Buy Online Writing an in class essay London

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    Modern english, especially written english, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed prose consists less and less of tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated hen-house. Since you dont know what fascism is, how can you struggle against fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end Buy Writing an in class essay London Online at a discount

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    Xs work is its peculiar deadness, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. The writer either has a meaning and cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and all its words are those of everyday life. When the voice of britain is heard at nine oclock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-maamish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens! Each of these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them Writing an in class essay London For Sale

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    You see, he feels impelled to write feels, presumably, that he has something new to say and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes ones meaning clear, or with the avoidance of americanisms, or with having what is called a good prose style. It is often easier to make up words of this kind ( and so forth) than to think up the english words that will cover ones meaning. Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at ones elbow For Sale Writing an in class essay London

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    In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase. Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. When you are composing in a hurry when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech it is natural to fall into a pretentious, latinized style. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug. The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables eighteen of those words are from latin roots, and one from greek Sale Writing an in class essay London

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